A Systematic Review of the Flipped Classroom Research in K-12: Implementation, Challenges and Effectiveness


Flipped classroom
Blended learning
Elementary education
Secondary education
Teaching/learning strategies
Improving classroom teaching

How to Cite

Satparam, J., & Apps, T. (2022). A Systematic Review of the Flipped Classroom Research in K-12: Implementation, Challenges and Effectiveness. Journal of Education, Management and Development Studies, 2(1), 35–51. https://doi.org/10.52631/jemds.v2i1.71


This study presents a systematic review of flipped classroom literature in K–12 with a focus on investigating flipped classroom implementation strategies, challenges, and effectiveness. Three electronic databases were searched: a) Scopus, b) Web of Science, and c) Education Research Complete. In the end, thirty-four articles were included in the final set of studies reviewed. Findings from the review revealed that flipped classroom literature in K–12 was mostly undertaken in high school contexts. Huge variations on the design of pre-class, in-class, bridging activities and technologies utilized were found in the review where viewing of instructional videos, performance of individual and group activities, and conducting question and answer sessions were found to be the prevalent forms of pre-class, in-class and bridging activities, respectively. Videos were found to be the main technological tool used in all the studies. The challenges found with flipped classroom implementation revolved around the following: a) student’s motivation and accountability; b) increased teacher’s workload; c) resistance of students due to unfamiliarity to the approach; d) access to technology; and e) delivery. Lastly, although findings on the effectiveness revealed that most of the reviewed studies found flipped classrooms to be effective, there were also studies which reported producing mixed and contradicting results. Future efforts in flipped classroom research in schools must extend the idea found in this review on how to design and implement flipped classrooms to yield better student results.



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